In 2012 I was given a box of old cameras. In amongst the broken rangefinders, defunct slide viewers and tired plastic Kodaks from the 1960s, were three gems from the early twentieth century: a tiny circa 1913 “Vest Pocket Kodak”, a scruffy Kodak No. 1 Autographic made in 1915, and a Contessa-Nettel “Cocarette” from around 1920.
Operating cameras from this period turns out to be surprisingly easy once you get the hang of it, but it’s a world away from the digital cameras most of us are used to. Photographers in 2014 are blessed with being able to choose whether to point and shoot, or take complete control of the creative process. 100 years ago cameras were a lot more limited. Needless to say, I had to see if any of these cameras worked, and whether I could get any usable images out of them.
I was most taken by the Vest Pocket Kodak, also known as the “VPK” or “soldier’s camera”. This is a tiny folding camera which, in its closed position, is no bigger than a modern compact camera. It would have been easy to slip one of these into your pocket as you boarded the train for the battlefields of France. I managed to find some expired 127 film and set out to take pictures of rainy Liverpool. Unfortunately, my VPK turned out to have been wounded in action. The film was ruined and until I can work out how to fix a hole in the bellows it is relegated to the shelf.
I had more luck with the other two. Despite its battered state, the Kodak No.1 folder needed little more than a roll of 120 film and some improvised light seals on the body to make it work. Focussing is done by moving the lens board backwards and forwards and aligning it with marks on a distance scale. A tape measure helps to get your subject in the right place, while shooting in low light involves a tripod and everyone sitting very still. But the slow lens also means the depth of field is manageable at least.
The Kodak No.1 was another camera type widely used by soldiers in World War I and the exercise of shooting with it gives some insight in to how those informal pictures of men in the trenches must have been taken. With its tiny and rather dim viewfinder, the Kodak No.1 is not the most precise of cameras, but its size and relative ease of use must have been a revelation at the time.
The Contessa-Nettel “Cocarette” is my favourite of the trio. These were first manufactured in 1919 and continued under the Zeiss name when the companies merged in 1926. The “Contessa” is an altogether more sophisticated creature than the two Kodaks, with a remote shutter release and a spirit level next to the finder. It even has a rising lens board, to help ease problems of perspective caused by the long 6x9cm negative when shooting portraits. While focussing is still by guessing or measuring distance, a smooth lever for moving the lens board back and forth, and a calibrated distance scale, make it easier. Three shutter speeds (1/25th. 1/50th and 1/100th) besides B and T, and apertures from f/6.3 to f/31 give plenty of flexibility.
The viewfinder is bright and clear, though a bit small, and the lens is surprisingly sharp. So much so that I have been experimenting with using this old camera for landscapes, where the wide format makes it ideal.
The first two decades of the twentieth century were the time when photography became accessible to just about everyone and the simplicity of the mechanical parts in these old cameras means that they are quite reliable even by modern standards. If you find a good one the image quality is better than you might expect, with a lovely old-fashioned look and sharp enough for just about anything. There were lots of different formats of roll film a century ago and we are left with just 120 and occasionally 127 now, but even so there are still large numbers of cameras out there to enjoy. Just remember to take your tape measure when you go out to shoot.